Wednesday, February 2, 2011

Black Inventors And Inventions

Black Inventors And Inventions 

Lonnie Johnson: Black Engineer Who Created the Super Soaker Water-gun and the lithium-air battery:
I can't believe even after all these years this still only has about 3,860 hits on YouTube! It's true what Mr. Johnson said a lot of places are also doing research on this technology. It's something how he was not able to get more funding to do a large scale model of this. I think Toyota has a good model out also or either is also still in testing too.

William Kamkwamba: Genius Who Built His Own Wind Towers Large Enough To Power His Home Just By Reading a Book! We must remember before there were schools of learning there was independent thought and natural comprehension. Something most blacks are born with but in most case have a cap put on it by Poverty, Racism, and Chance.

Air Conditioning Unit Frederick M. Jones July 12, 1949
Almanac Benjamin Banneker Approx. 1791
Auto Cut-Off Switch Granville T. Woods January 1, 1839
Auto Fishing Devise G. Cook May 30, 1899
Automatic Gear Shift Richard Spikes February 28, 1932
Baby Buggy W. H. Richardson June 18, 1899
Bicycle Frame L.R. Johnson October 10, 1899
Biscuit Cutter A.P. Ashbourne November 30, 1875
Blood Plasma Bag Charles Drew Approx. 1945
Cellular Phone Henry T. Sampson July 6, 1971
Chamber Commode T. Elkins January 3, 1897
Clothes Dryer G.T. Sampson June 6, 1862
Curtain Rod S.R. Scratton November 30, 1889
Curtain Rod Support William S. Grant August 4, 1896
Door Stop O. Dorsey December 10, 1878
Dust Pan Lawrence P. Ray August 3, 1897
Egg Beater Willie Johnson February 5, 1884
Electric Lampbulb Lewis Latimer March 21, 1882
Elevator Alexander Miles October 11, 1867
Eye Protector P. Johnson November 2, 1880
Fire Escape Ladder J.W. Winters May 7, 1878
Folding Bed L.C. Bailey July 18, 1899
Folding Chair Brody & Surgwar June 11, 1889
Fountain Pen W.B. Purvis January 7, 1890
Furniture Caster O.A. Fisher 1878
Gas Mask Garrett Morgan October 13, 1914
Golf Tee T. Grant December 12, 1899
Guitar Robert F. Flemming, Jr. March 3, 1886
Hair Brush Lydia O. Newman November 15, 18--
Hand Stamp Walter B. Purvis February 27, 1883
Horse Shoe J. Ricks March 30, 1885
Ice Cream Scooper A.L. Cralle February 2, 1897
Improv. Sugar Making Norbet Rillieux December 10, 1846
Insect-Destroyer Gun A.C. Richard February 28, 1899
Ironing Board Sarah Boone December 30, 1887
Key Chain F.J. Loudin January 9, 1894
Lantern Michael c. Harvey August 19, 1884
Lawn Mower L.A. Burr May 19, 1889
Lemon Squeezer J. Thomas White December 8, 1893
Lock W.A. Martin July 23, 18--
Lubricating Cup Ellijah McCoy November 15, 1895
Lunch Pail James Robinson 1887
Mail Box Paul L. Downing October 27, 1891
Mop Thomas W. Stewart June 11, 1893
Motor Federick M. Jones June 27, 1939
Peanut Butter George Washington Carver 1896
Pencil Sharpener J.L. Love November 23, 1897
Record Player Arm Joseph Hunger Dickenson January 8, 1819
Refrigerator J. Standard June 14, 1891
Riding Saddles W.D., Davis Ocotber 6, 1895
Rolling Pin John W. Reed 1864
Shampoo Headrest C.O. Bailiff October 11, 1898
Spark Plug Edmond Berger February 2, 1839
Stethoscope Imhotep Ancient Egypt
Stove T.A. Carrington July 25, 1876
Straightening Comb Madam C.J. Walker Approx. 1905
Street Sweeper Charles B. Brooks March 17, 1890
Phone Transmitter Granville T. Woods December 2, 1884
Thermostat Control Frederick M. Jones February 23, 1960
Traffic Light Garrett Morgan November 20, 1923
Tricycle M.A. Cherry May 6, 1886
Typewriter Burridge & Marshman April 7, 1885

Other Things Invented By Blacks:

Chess - Super Water Blaster - Fiber Optics


See The Movie that should make you think section for the Story of Vivian Thomas in 
"Something The Lord Made."


Did you know that the individual considered the "architect of the personal computer" is a Black man? Dr. Mark Dean holds three of the original nine patents on the computer that all PCs are based upon.

Black kids might embrace technology with more enthusiasm if they knew someone like Dr. Mark Dean already was leading the way. You may not have heard of Dr. Mark Dean. But almost everything in your life has been affected by his work.

Dr. Dean is a Ph.D. from Stanford University. He is in the National Hall of Inventors. He has more than 30 patents pending. He is a vice president with IBM. And he is also the architect of the modern-day personal computer. Dr. Dean holds three of the original nine patents on the computer that all PCs are based upon. And, Dr. Mark Dean is an African American.

So how is it that we can celebrate the 20th anniversary of the IBM personal computer without reading or hearing a single word about him? History is cruel when it comes to telling the stories of African Americans. Dr. Dean isn't the first Black inventor to be overlooked.

Consider John Stanard, inventor of the refrigerator; Garret Morgan inventor of the traffic light; George Sampson, creator of the clothes dryer; Alexander Miles and his elevator; Lewis Latimer and the electric lamp. Hopefully, Dr. Mark Dean won't go away as quietly as they did. He certainly shouldn't. Dr. Dean helped start a Digital Revolution that created people like Microsoft's Bill Gates and Dell Computer's Michael Dell. Millions of jobs in information technology can be traced back directly to Dr. Dean.

Although technically Dr. Dean can't be credited with creating the computer-- that is left to Alan Turing, a pioneering 20th-century English mathematician -- Dr. Dean rightly deserves to take a bow for the PC, the personal computer, the machine we use today. The computer really wasn't practical for home or small business use until Dean came along, leading a team that developed the interior architecture that enables multiple devices, such as modems and printers, to be connected to personal computers. In other words, because of Dr. Dean, the PC became a part of our daily lives.

For most of us, changing the face of society would have been enough. But not for Dr. Dean. Still in his early forties, he has a lot of inventing left in him. He recently made history again by leading the design team responsible for creating the first 1-gigahertz processor chip, another huge step in making computers faster and smaller.

As the world congratulates itself for the new Digital Age brought on by the personal computer, we need to guarantee that the African-American story is part of the hoopla surrounding the most stunning technological advance the world has ever seen. We cannot afford to let Dr. Mark Dean become a footnote in history. He is well worth his own history book!


Wilcie Elfe, of Charleston, South Carolina, was mixing prescriptions as early as 1853
One of the most diligent researchers was Dr. Charles Turner of St. Louis, who wrote at least 47 papers in the field of biology
George Washington Carver founded a new branch of chemistry, called 'chemurgy' defined as "the chemistry of the industrial use of organic raw materials," or "the industrial use of living things". From his Tuskegee Institute Laboratory in Alabama, he revolutionized southern agriculture. He used such raw materials as peanuts, sweet potatoes, soybeans and red clay to produce bleach, shampoo, flour, oil, coffee, house paint, among others. Read More
Norbert Rillieux revolutionized the sugar industry
James Cune Smith, a graduate of the University of Glasgow, Scotland, wrote scientific papers attacking the idea of racial inferiority
Lewis H. Latimer made important applications to the principle of electricity, and wrote the first text book on the Edison Electric System
Jan E. Matzeliger revolutionized shoe-making with his lasting machine and subsequent improvements.
The list of outstanding African American scientists includes, but is not limited to, such men as:

J. Ernest Wilkins, who earned a PhD. in mathematics at age 19
Dr. Percy Julian, research chemist whose work in sterols has done much to improve the medical treatment of arthritis and glaucoma
Dr. Ernest E. Just, pure scientist, recognized for his work in the study of cells
Dr. Meredith Gourdine, of Gourdine Industries, who organized a company which conducts research and produces equipment in electro-gas dynamics.
African American scientists continue to make significant contributions through such pure and applied laboratories as Abbot Laboratories, Huffman-Larocke, Baxter Laboratories, Douglas Aircraft Company and Rohm and Haas Chemical.

Through these and many other industrial chemical, biological and related institutions, including health and education, the African American scientist, always considered exceptional, has given much and continues to give to the industrial development of this nation through his scientific studies, discoveries, and pursuits

Jan E. Matzelinger invented the Shoe Lasting Machine

Lewis Latimer invented the Electric Lamp (also,he drew the blueprint for Alexander Grahm Bells telephone.)

Walter Sammons invented the Comb

Phillip Downing invented the Letter Drop

Elbert R. Robinson invented the Rapid Transit System

Michael Harvey invented the Lantern

A.C. Richardson invents a churn

Granville T. Woods invented the Automatic Cut Off Switch

Henry Blair of Maryland was the first black inventor to receive a patent. He invented a corn planter.

Earl E. Jones' programming instructions created computer control access to files for the huge IBM 370 to help improve the science of communication between computers; Blacks in Science, Sertima, 1983.

Annie Easley developed computer codes for energy products. To give you an idea of the importance of coputer codes, Clarence Harris invented aerodynamic computer codes for Genderal Electric that saved the company 1.33 million dollars; Black Contributors, DOE/OPA 0335 (1979).

Courtland Robinson developed an experimental procedure called "accelerated life testing" which is a way of testing the life time durability of a chip in just a few days; 1980, Blacks in Science, Sertima, 1983.

Brian Jackson gained international recogniition for the miniaturization of computers; 1960-80. Balcks in Science, Sertima, 1983.

In technology, W. Lincoln Hawkins, Ph.D. stands out, with 18 U.S. and 129 foreign patents. The first African-American scientist to work for Bell Labs, Hawkins made universal telephone service possible by co-inventing a chemical additive that prevents the plastic coating on telecommunications cables from deteriorating. He won the National Medal of Technology in the year of his death (1992).

African-American engineers have also taken the tradition of domestic inventions to a high-tech level. David Crosthwait (died 1976, with 34 U.S. and 80 foreign patents) designed the heating system of New York's Rockefeller Center (1931). Marie Van Brittain Brown and Albert L. Brown co-patented (1969) an audio-visual door-monitor / home security system. Today, engineer and entrepreneur Clarence L. Elder of Baltimore has earned a number of patents (1975- ) for his energy-saving "Occustat" system, which uses motion detectors to allow thermostats to be lowered in a building's unoccupied rooms.

African-American inventors have also improved the lives of the physically challenged. Bessie J. (Griffin) Blount, a physical therapist who worked with soldiers injured in World War II, patented a device (1951) that allows those who have lost the use of their limbs to feed themselves without assistance. More recently, Rufus J. Weaver patented a wheelchair that climbs stairs.

Granville T. Woods:TelephoneTransmitter,Electromechanical Brake,Overhead Conducting System for Electrified Railway,Galvanic Battery.

Frederick Jones:In 1935, he invented the first automatic refrigeration system for long-haul trucks.

Black inventor Dr. James West is a 40-year veteran of Bell Labs in Murray Hill, N.J., West is a Bell Labs Fellow and distinguished member of technical staff in the Acoustics Research Department. His work in acoustics is being applied to speech synthesis and multimedia technology, making it possible for people and machines to interact with greater accuracy.

Dr. George R. Carruthers
Born 1939 -

Far Electrograph Ultraviolet Camera
Patent Number(s)

Inducted 2003

Invention Impact

With the Naval Research Laboratory since 1964, Carruthers has been a driving force in the use of ultraviolet astronomy to learn more about the universe. His most well-known contribution was in developing the Apollo 16 far ultraviolet camera and spectrograph, which was designed specifically for use on the moon's surface to record radiation from the upper half of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. "What we had proposed to do was set up a camera on the surface of the moon to observe the Earth and study its hydrogen atmosphere, which extends out to many thousands of miles," explains Carruthers. "Even the space station and the shuttle can't get far enough away to really study the higher atmosphere."

A pioneer in ultraviolet astronomy, Carruthers' invention was first used in sounding rocket flights in 1966, and made the first detection of molecular hydrogen in deep space during a 1970 flight. The camera used in the Apollo 16 mission produced about 200 photos revealing new features of Earth's far-outer atmosphere, as well as deep-space objects from the perspective of the lunar surface.

"People sort of expected to see what we saw, but even so, just having the first pictures that actually verified that, was very exciting," says Carruthers. It also produced new far ultraviolet images of stars, nebulas, and galaxies, as well as new views of the Earth.

Although the camera itself was left behind, a second version was used aboard the final Skylab flight in 1973 to obtain images of Comet Kohoutek. Carruthers has also been involved in numerous sounding rocket and space shuttle flights utilizing his cameras, including far-UV studies of stars and nebulas, Comets Halley and West and the Earth's upper atmosphere. His most recent experiment was carried out on the unmanned DoD ARGOS satellite mission, launched in 1999.

James Forten was born in 1766 as a free Black man in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Over the course of his lifetime, he would make an impact upon the fortunes of industries and the lives of his fellow man.

Forten was the son of Thomas and Sarah Forten and the grandson of slaves. He was raised in Philadelphia and educated in Anthony Benezet's Quaker school for colored children. At age eight, James began working for Robert Bridges sail loft, and worked alongside his father. A year later his father died in a boating accident and James was forced to take on additional work to provide for his family.

When he turned 14 he worked as a powder boy during the Revolutionary War on the Royal Lewis sailing ship. After being captured by the British, he was released and returned home to again begin working in Mr. Bridges loft. Pleased with his work and ambition, Mr. Bridges eventually appointed him to the foreman's position in the loft. In 1798 Bridges decided to retire and wanted Forten to remain in charge of the loft. He loaned enough money to Forten to purchase the loft and soon James owned the business, employing 38 people.
Around this time, Forten began experimenting with different types of sails for ships and finally invented one that he found was better suited for maneuvering and maintaining greater speeds. Although he did not patent the sail, he was able to benefit financially, as his sailing loft became one of the most successful and prosperous ones in Philadelphia.
The fortune he soon made was enormous for any man, Black or White. Forten spent his money and lived a luxurious life, but he also made good use of his resources on people other than his self. More than half of his considerable fortune was devoted towards abolitionistcauses. He often purchased slaves freedom, helped to finance and bring in funding for William Garrison's newspaper, the Libertarian, opened his home on Lombard Street as an Underground Railroad depot and opened a school for Black children.
James Forten died in 1842 after living an incredible life. His early years were devoted to providing for his mother, his middle years towards building his fortune and supporting his family and his later years to uplifting his fellow man. He was not only a great inventor, but an even greater man.

Archie Alexander, 1888-1958: Engineered Bridges, Powerplants, and Major Structures Across the Nation

David Crosthwait, 1891 - 1976: A Man for all Seasons- Heating, Air Conditioning, and Ventilation Designer

Frederick M. Jones, 1892-1961: Changed Our Eating Habits with Refrigeration

Louis W. Roberts, 1913- : Electronics and Energy-Saving Cars

Katherine Johnson, 1918- : Mapping and Tracking Space Missions

Otis Boykin, 1920- : Electronic Devices for Heart Stimulators and Guided Missiles

O.S. (Ozzie) Williams, 1921- : From Rockets to Solar And Wind Energy for Africa

J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr., 1923 - : Ph.D. at 19 Leads to Nuclear and Space Research

Rufus Stokes, 1924 - : Clean Air Machine for Environment and Health

Virgil G. Trice, Jr. 1926 - : Managing the Radioactive Wastes of Nuclear Power Generation

Meredith Gourdine, 1929 - : High-Voltage Electricity from Natural Gas

Annie Easley, 1932 - : Computer Codes for Energy Technology

James Harris, 1932 - : Teamwork Discovers New Chemical Elements

Caldwell McCoy, 1933 - : Looking Ahead to Energy from Magnetic Fusion

Clarence L. Elder, 1935 - : The Energy-Saving "Occustat"

Cordell Reed, 1938 - : Nuclear Electric Power

Donald Cotton, 1939 - : Propellants and Nuclear Reactors - Energy from Research in Chemistry

Ernest Coleman, 1942 - : From Developing Physics Research to Developing Gifted Students

Lawnie Taylor: Moving Solar Technology from the Laboratory to Industry

Norbert Rillieux, 1806-1894 Cut Costs and Energy in Refining Sugar

Norbert Rillieux revolutionized the sugar industry by inventing a refining process that reduced the time, cost, and safety risk involved in producing good sugar from cane and beets.
The son of a French planter/engineer and a slave mother, Rillieux was born in New Orleans and educated in France, where he majored in engineering and also served as an instructor.

Returning to New Orleans, he noted that methods for refining sugar from cane and beets were crude, backbreaking and dangerous, requiring slaves to ladle boiling cane juice from one kettle to another to produce a dark sugar. Rillieux designed an evaporating pan which enclosed a series of condensing
coils in vacuum chambers. His system took much of the hand labor out of refining, saved fuel because the juice boiled at lower temperatures, and produced a superior product.

Rillieux's device was patented in 1846, and was in great demand on plantations in Louisiana, Mexico and the West Indies, where it increased sugar production and reduced operating costs.

Elijah McCoy, 1843-1929 Automatic Machine Oiling-The Real McCoy

The lubricating cup, which made possible the automatic oiling of machinery, was invented by Elijah McCoy, the Canadian-born son of runaway slaves. Educated in Scotland as a mechanical engineer, McCoy settled in Detroit on his return to the United States, and started experimenting with a cup that
regulated the flow of oil onto moving parts of machines.

In 1872, he was granted a patent for the first automatic lubricator. No longer did machines have to be stopped for oiling; his new oiling device revolutionized the machine industry. McCoy established his own firm and obtained patents for additional inventions, such as an "ironing table" and a lawn sprinkler; however, his major contribution was the lubricating cup which was to become so popular that persons inspecting new equipment generally asked if it contained the "real McCoy," meaning the McCoy oiling
device. This helped popularize an American expression, meaning the "real thing."

Lewis H. Latimer, 1848-1928 Electric-Lighting Pioneer

Lewis H. Latimer, a member of Thomas Edison's research team, made outstanding contributions to the development and commercialization of the electric light.

Born in Boston, Latimer first worked as a draftsman in a patent office. He later became interested in electric lighting and began a long, productive career in the field, during which he both patented a process for making carbon filament for light bulbs and invented the bulb's threaded socket. He helped install the carbon filament lighting system in New York City, Philadelphia, Montreal and London.

In 1884, Latimer joined the Edison Electric Light Company, where he did research and, in 1890, wrote Incandescent Electric Lighting, a book which became a guide for lighting engineers. For many years, he served as an expert witness in court battles over Edison's patents. At Latimer's death, the Edison Pioneers, of which he was a charter member, attributed his "important inventions" to a "keen perception of the potential of the electric light and kindred industries."

Granville Woods, 1856-1910 On the Move with Advanced Trolleys and Safer Trains

Granville Woods was awarded more than 35 patents for electrical system and devices which created new energy techniques for the transportation and communication industries.

Born in Columbus, Ohio, Woods migrated to Missouri and worked in a variety of jobs which gave him the experience to formulate his inventions. In 1884, he secured his first patent for a furnace and boiler to produce steam heat. In the years that followed, the prolific inventor improved the telephone transmitter and developed an electric car powered by overhead wires, a grooved wheel for the trolley car, a "third rail" system for an electric locomotive, an improved airbrake system, and a telegraph system for
communicating between moving trains, which contributed to railroad safety. Woods sold most of his inventions to the General Electric, Westinghouse and Bell Telephone Companies.

Garrett A. Morgan, 1877-1963 Gas Masks and Traffic Signals-Life-Saving Inventions

Kentucky-born Garrett Morgan received wide recognition for his outstanding contributions to public safety. Firemen in many cities in the early 1900's wore the safety helmet and gas mask that he invented, and for which he was awarded a gold medal at the Second International Exposition of Safety and
Sanitation in New York in 1914. Two years later, he himself used the mask to rescue men trapped by a gas explosion in a tunnel being constructed under Lake Erie. Following the disaster which took 21 lives, the City of Cleveland honored him with a gold medal for his heroic efforts.

In 1923, Morgan received a patent for his new concept-a traffic signal to regulate vehicle movement in city areas. "Stop" and "Go" signs were systematically raised and lowered at intersections to bring order out of chaos and improve traffic safety. Some years later, after he had sold his design to the General Electric Company, Morgan's device was replaced with the light signal in use today.

Archie Alexander, 1888-1958 Engineered Bridges, Powerplants, and Major Structures Across the Nation

Archie Alexander, a design and construction engineer, left his stamp on the landscape of America by building bridges, freeways, airfields, railroad trestles and powerplants.

Born in Iowa, Alexander attended the State University and received an engineering degree in 1912. After several years as a design engineer, he and a former classmate established their own engineering firm and constructed major projects across the Nation. Starting at home, they built the heating plant and powerhouse at the University of Iowa, a sewage treatment plant in Grand Rapids, Michigan, an airfield in Tuskegee, Alabama, and the Tidal Basin bridge and seawall and the Whitehurst Freeway in Washington. D.C.

Alexander received many awards during the course of his career. At the centennial celebration of the University of Iowa in 1947, he was named one of its outstanding alumni. In 1954, President Eisenhower honored him with the appointment as Territorial Governor of the Virgin Islands.

David Crosthwait, 1891-1976 A Man for all Seasons- Heating, Air Conditioning, and Ventilation Designer

For his outstanding contributions to engineering technology, David Crosthwait was awarded an honorary doctoral degree in 1975 from Purdue University, the same school that had awarded him a B.S. in mechanical engineering 62 years earlier. In the years between, he had received 34 U.S. patents and 80 foreign patents relating to the design, installation, testing, and servicing of powerplants and heating and ventilating systems.

Crosthwait worked for the Dunham Company of Chicago during much of his career and headed its research laboratory in Marshalltown, Iowa. Later he served as technical advisor to the company.

An authority on heat transfer, ventilation, and air conditioning, Crosthwait invented several new systems. He developed the control systems and the variable vacuum system of heating for major buildings including Rockefeller Center in New York City. His writing included a manual on heating and cooling with water and guides, standards and codes dealing with heating ventilation, refrigeration, and air conditioning.

After retiring from industry in 1969, Crosthwait continued to share his knowledge by teaching a course on steam heating theory and controls at Purdue.

Frederick M. Jones, 1892-1961 Changed Our Eating Habits with Refrigeration

Frederick M. Jones held more than 60 patents in a variety of fields, but refrigeration was his specialization. In 1935, he invented the first automatic refrigeration system for long-haul trucks, Later, the system was adapted to a variety of other carriers, including ships and railway cars, His invention eliminated the problem of food spoilage and changed America's eating habits. In addition, Jones developed an air-conditioning unit for military field hospitals, a Portable x-ray machine, and a refrigerator for military field kitchens.

Born in Ohio, Jones served in France during World War 1. After the war, he worked as a garage mechanic and, from the knowledge gained in this early experience, developed a self-starting gasoline motor. In the late 1920's, Jones designed a series of devices for the growing movie industry, adapting
silent movie projectors to accommodate talking films, and developing the box-office equipment that delivers tickets and spills out change.

Louis W. Roberts, 1913- Electronics and Energy-Saving Cars

Louis W. Roberts, physicist, mathematician and electronics specialist, is Director of Energy and Environment at the Transportation System Center in Cambridge, Mass. The center, part of the U.S. Department of Transportation, develops energy conservation practices for the transportation industry.
Currently, the industry uses about half of this country's total petroleum demand, but is required by the Energy Conservation Policy Act to reduce fuel use in all vehicles.

Roberts' productive career has included an assignment as chief of the Optics and Microwave Laboratory in the Electronics Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Earlier, he founded, and was president of, his own microwave concern. In addition to his industrial and government
research experience, Roberts has served as a professor of physics at Howard University and professor of math and physics at St. Augustine's College.

Educated at Fisk University and the University of Michigan, Roberts holds 11 patents, all in electronic devices, and has written many papers on electromagnetism, optics and microwaves.

Katherine Johnson, 1918- Mapping and Tracking Space Missions

Katherine Johnson is an Aerospace technologist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Trained as a mathematician and physicist in colleges of her native West Virginia, she has worked on absorbing problems of interplanetary trajectories, space navigation, and the orbits of spacecraft. These spacecraft included the Earth Resources Satellite which has helped locate underground minerals and other essential earth resources.

Johnson analyzed data gathered by tracking stations around the world during the lunar orbital missions-- the moon shots. Later, she studied new navigation procedures to determine more practical ways to track manned and unmanned space missions. For her pioneer work in this field, she was a recipient of the Group Achievement Award presented to NASA's Lunar Spacecraft and Operations team.

Otis Boykin, 1920- Electronic Devices for Heart Stimulators and Guided Missiles

Otis Boykin, who began his career as a laboratory assistant testing automatic controls for airplanes, has invented a wide range of electronic devices. One of his first achievements was a type of resistor now used in many computers, radios, television sets, and other electronically controlled devices. In addition, Boykin has developed a control unit for artificial heart stimulators, a variable resistor used in guided missiles, small
components such as thick-film resistors for computers, a burglar-proof cash register, and a chemical air filter.

His innovations have had both military and commercial application. Some have reduced the cost of producing electronic controls for radio and television. At present more than three dozen products with Boykin components are used throughout the world.

O.S. (Ozzie) Williams, 1921- From Rockets to Solar And Wind Energy for Africa

O.S. (Ozzie) Williams was the first Black aeronautical engineer to be hired by Republic Aviation, Inc., during World War II.

Subsequently, he joined Greer Hydraulics, Inc., where he became a group project engineer and helped develop the first airborne radar beacon for locating crashed aircraft. A specialist in small rocket engine design, Williams also was associated with the Reaction Motors Division of Thiokol Chemical Corporation.

In 1961, he joined Grumman International, where he was in charge of developing and producing the control rocket systems that guided lunar modules during moon landings. This responsibility included administering nearly forty million dollars in subcontracts. Williams now is vice president of the firm, in charge of trade and industrial relations with emerging African nations; here his work includes the application of solar and wind energy to African needs.

J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr., 1923- Ph.D. at 19 Leads to Nuclear and Space Research

Mathematician, physicist and engineer, J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr., has contributed his talents mainly to the research and development of nuclear power.

As a teenager, Wilkins attracted nationwide attention when he received his college degree at age 17 and his doctorate from the University of Chicago at 19. He taught mathematics and did research at the University's Metallurgical Laboratory which was working on the atomic bomb. Later, he became part owner of a company which designed and developed nuclear reactors for power generation.

His primary achievement has been the development of shields against gamma rays from the sun and nuclear sources. He developed mathematical models by which the amount of gamma rays absorbed by a given material may be calculated; this technique is in wide use among researchers in space and nuclear projects.

Wilkins served for several years as Distinguished Professor of Applied Mathematical Physics at Howard University. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, he was formerly president of the American Nuclear Society.

Rufus Stokes, 1924- Clean Air Machine for Environment and Health

Rufus Stokes' concern for cleaner air for all Americans caused him to focus his research on developing air filtration equipment. Born in Alabama, Stokes later moved to Illinois where he worked as a machinist for an incinerator company, in 1968, he was granted a patent on an air-purification device to reduce to a safe level the gases and ash from furnace and powerplant smoke; the filtered smoke also became nearly invisible.

Stokes has tested and demonstrated Several models of his "clean air machine" in Chicago and elsewhere to show that it may be used in many ways. His system is intended, not only to help people with respiratory problems, but to benefit plants and animals as well; a side effect of the filtered air is the improvement in the appearance and durability of objects such as cars and buildings that are usually exposed to outdoor pollution for lengthy periods.

Virgil G. Trice, Jr. 1926- Managing the Radioactive Wastes of Nuclear Power Generation

Virgil Trice has spent almost 30 years in developing nuclear energy and now is primarily concerned with managing the radioactive waste that results from nuclear power generation.

He has been working in the waste management field since 1971 when he joined the Atomic Energy Commission. In 1975 the AEC was abolished and he transferred to the Energy Research and Development Administration and then to the Department of Energy when it was established in 1977. He is
responsible for radioactive waste management planning, reporting, and program control - an area important to the future of nuclear power.

From 1949 to 1971 Trice worked at the Argonne National Laboratory on research and development, economic evaluation, and program planning of concepts for nuclear fuel reprocessing and power reactors.

Born in Indianapolis, Trice attended Purdue University where he received B.S. and M.S. degrees in chemical engineering. He also received an M.S. in industrial engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology. His career includes teaching part time as Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
at Howard University.

Meredith Gourdine, 1929- High-Voltage Electricity from Natural Gas

Meredith Courdine is best known for his pioneering work in electrogasdynamics, a way of producing high-voltage electricity from natural gas. His research has the potential to improve refrigeration for preserving foods, supply power for heat and light in homes, burn coal more efficiently, and desalt sea water.

Head of his own research and development company in New Jersey, Gourdine and his associates have developed a variety of devices: an exhaust-purifying system for cars; equipment for reducing incinerator smoke pollution from older apartment houses; a technique for dispersing fog from airport runways; and a system for production-line coating of metal products, which reduces production costs and the amount of pollutants released to the atmosphere.

Formerly chief scientist with the Curtiss-Wright Corp., Gourdine served on the Presidential Advisory Panel on Energy in 1964. A man of many talents, he also won a silver medal in track at the 1952 Olympics.

Annie Easley, 1932- Computer Codes for Energy Technology

Annie Easley is among the growing group of women who are making major contributions to energy research and management. Working at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, Easley develops and implements computer codes used in solar, wind, and other energy projects.

Her energy assignments have included studies to determine the life of storage batteries (such as those used in electric vehicles) and to identify energy conversion systems that offer the greatest improvement over
commercially available technology.

A native of Birmingham, Alabama, Easley has worked for NASA and its predecessor agency since 1955. She continued her education while working and, in 1977, obtained a degree in mathematics from Cleveland State University. Over the years she attended many courses in her specialization offered by NASA.

James Harris, 1932- Teamwork Discovers New Chemical Elements

Nuclear chemist James Harris was a member of the scientific team at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory that discovered two new elements just a few years ago. Harris joined the laboratory, which is operated for the Department of Energy by the University of California, in 1960, after years of research at Tracerlab, Inc. At Berkeley he sought to complete the periodic table of chemical elements.

In the course of several years the laboratory produced a number of new elements by bombarding special targets in an accelerator. The research team purified and prepared the target material and, after hundreds of hours of bombarding the target with carbon, detected element 104 for a few seconds in 1969. Element 105 was produced in 1970 when the same target was bombarded with nitrogen. Element 104 was named Rutherfordium, and 105, Hahnium, in honor of two atomic pioneers.

Unlike most of his colleagues, Harris did not have a Ph.D. degree. The Texas native had a B.S. from Houston-Tillotson College in Austin and had taken graduate courses in chemistry and physics. However his alma mater conferred an honorary doctorate upon him in 1973, largely because of his work as
co-discoverer of elements 104 and 105.

Caldwell McCoy, 1933- Looking Ahead to Energy from Magnetic Fusion

As program manager for the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Network, Caldwell McCoy directs the Nation's largest network devoted to a single scientific problem-that of achieving usable energy from magnetic fusion. The Department of Energy network serves over 800 users of experimental data
across the country.

A native of Hartford, McCoy earned an electrical engineering degree at the University of Connecticut and then received both Master and Doctor of Science degrees, the latter in telecommunications, from George Washington University.

From 1959 to 1976, McCoy designed, tested, and evaluated systems for detecting and tracking submarines. For his achievements in developing long-range anti-submarine systems at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., he was awarded the Laboratory's Thomas Edison Fellowship in 1968. Since 1976 he has been part of the magnetic fusion energy program, first with the Energy Research and Development Administration and then its successor agency the Department of Energy.

Clarence L. Elder, 1935- The Energy-Saving "Occustat"

Head of his own research and development firm in Baltimore, Clarence Elder was awarded a patent in 1975 for a monitoring and control energy conservation system. His "Occustat" is designed to reduce energy waste in temporarily vacant homes and other buildings, and may be especially valuable for motels and hotels. The system consists of connecting each energy unit to an electronic beam attached to the building entrance to monitor incoming and outgoing occupants. When the house or apartment is empty of people, the beam sets the Occustat system into motion, reducing energy demand and achieving
energy savings up to 30 percent.

Elder and his associates also have developed other systems and devices for which they have received 12 U.S. and foreign patents, trademarks and copyrights.

Born in Georgia, and graduated from Morgan State College, Elder was awarded a plaque at the New York International Patent Exposition 1969 for "Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Electronics."

Cordell Reed, 1938- Nuclear Electric Power

Cordell Reed, Assistant Vice President of the Commonwealth Edison Company of Chicago, is in charge of nuclear licensing and environmental activities.

Reed has been with the company since 1960, starting as an engineer assigned to the design, construction and operation of coal-fired generating stations. In 1967, he transferred to the nuclear division, with the task of developing more efficient and productive powerplants. In 1975, Reed was appointed manager of the nuclear engineering department, where he headed a group of 75 engineers who were responsible for the engineering design of all nuclear projects. In this period, Commonwealth became the Nation's leading nuclear utility; currently the company has seven nuclear power plants in operation capable of producing more than 5,000,000 kilowatts of electricity, and is constructing additional units with a capacity of 6,600,000 kilowatts.

A native of Chicago, Reed holds a masters degree in engineering from the University of Illinois.

Donald Cotton, 1939- Propellants and Nuclear Reactors - Energy from Research in Chemistry

Donald Cotton, the technical lead for nuclear chemistry research and development at the Department of Energy, plans, manages, and evaluates research and development on reactor materials and chemistry carried out in DOE national laboratories. He identifies the breeder reactor needs of less-developed nations - an assignment which has taken him to several European states.

Dr. Cotton first worked as a physical chemist at the Naval Propellant Plant at Indian Head, Maryland. From there he moved to the Marine Engineering Laboratory in Annapolis where he worked on the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and invented a microwave absorption technique for measuring solid
propellant burning rates. Later he researched liquid state chemistry and liquid gas propellants.

His career extended beyond the laboratory. For 2 years Cotton was science editor for Libratterian Books, presenting scientific and technical subjects to lay readers.

Cotton's degrees in physical chemistry include an M.S. from Yale University and a Ph.D from Howard. He has lectured at universities in Africa and South America, has patents to his credit, and has written many scientific papers.

Ernest Coleman, 1942- From Developing Physics Research to Developing Gifted Students

Ernest Coleman has directed high energy physics research at three Federal agencies-- the Atomic Energy Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Department of Energy.

Coleman, a Phi Beta Kappa student at the University of Michigan, received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D, degrees there. After graduation he was awarded a year's research fellowship in high energy physics by the German Government and studied in Hamburg, Upon his return to the United States, Coleman taught
at the University of Minnesota, first as Assistant Professor of Physics and then as Associate Professor.

During a year as visiting Professor at Stanford University he became director of the summer science program for gifted disadvantaged college students. He has continued to head this program and has brought highly motivated and able students into the field of physics.

For his contributions to physics education, particularly for disadvantaged students, and for his contributions to physics research and its applications in education, Coleman received the Distinguished Service Award of the American Association of Physics Teachers.

Lawnie Taylor, Moving Solar Technology from the Laboratory to Industry

Physicist Lawnie Taylor, chief of market development and training in the Department of Energy's solar offices, plans and directs programs to accelerate the commercialization of newly developed solar technologies.

Before joining the Energy Research and Development Administration in 1975, Taylor operated his own building-system engineering firm in Los Angeles, Previously he held scientific research and management positions in Columbia University's Nuclear Laboratory, the Aerojet General Corporation's nuclear
rocket project, and the Xerox Corporation's space program, Taylor received a NASA award for his development of an Apollo experiment.

Taylor received his B.S. and M.A. degrees in physics from Columbia University and has completed academic requirements for the Ph.D. in physics at the University of Southern California.

Among his many civic activities Taylor has been a newspaper publisher and the founder of several recognized organizations concerned with housing, education, and economic development in the low income community. Taylor has also authored many publications on science and technology education and
equal opportunity.


Small List of African American Inventions

1. A.P. Abourne Refining of coconut oil. July 27, 1980
2 A. B. Blackburn Spring seat for chairs. Patent# 380,420 April 3, 1888
3 A.C. Richardson Casket-Lowering Device. Patent# 529,311 November 13, 1894
4 A.C. Richardson Churn. Patent # 466,470 February 17, 1891
5 A.E. Long and A.A. Jones-- Caps For Bottles And Jars 1898
6 A.L. Lewis Window Cleaner 1892
7 A.L. Rickman Galoshes 1898
8 Anna M. Mangin Pastry fork March 1, 1892
9 Alexander P. Ashbourne Biscuit Cutter November, 1875
10 Alexander Miles Elevator and also safety device for elevators. Patent No. 371,207 October11, 1887
11 Alfred L. Cralle Ice Cream Scooper. Patent # 576,395 February 2,1897
12 Alice Parker Heating Furnace 1918
13 Andrew Beard Automatic Car Coupling Device 1897
14 Augustus Jackson Ice cream 1832
15 B. F. Cargill Invalid cot. Patent# 629,658 July 25, 1899
16 B.F. Jackson Gas Burner
17 Benjamin Banneker Clock, Prints for Wash. DC 1st Almanac
18 Bessie V. Griffin Portable Receptacle 1951
19 C.B. Brook Street Sweeper 1896
20 C.V. Richey Fire Escape Bracket. Patent # 596,427 December 28, 1897
21 C. W. Allen Self Leveling table. Patent # 613,436 November 1, 1898
22 D. McCree Portable Fire Escape. Patent # 440,322 November 11, 1890
23 Darryl Thomas Cattle Roping Apparatus
24 Dr. Charles Drew Invented Blood Banks And Established Them Around The World 1940
25 Dr. Daniel Hale Williams Performed First Open Heart Surgery 1893
26 Edmond Berger Spark Plug
27 Elbert R. Robinson Electric Railway Trolley
28 Ellen Elgin Clothes Wringer 1880s
29 Elijah Mccoy Automatic Lubrication System (For Railroad And Heavy Machinery) 1892 July 2, 1872
30 Folarin Sosan Package-Park (Solves Package Delivery Dilemma) MAITA.COM 1997
31 Frederick Jones Ticket Dispensing Machine. Patent # 2163754 June 27, 1939
32 Frederick Jones Starter Generator. Patent # 2475842 July 12, 1949
33 Frederick Jones Two-Cycle gasoline Engine. Patent # 2523273 November 28, 1950
34 Frederick Jones Air Condition. Patent # 2475841 July 12, 1949
35 Frederick Jones Portable X-Ray Machine
36 G.W. Murray Cultivator and Marker. Patent # 517,961 April 10, 1894
37 G.W. Murray Combined Furrow Opener and Stalk-Knocker. Patent # 517,960 April 10, 1894
38 G.W. Murray Fertilizer Distributor. Patent# 520,889 June 5, 1894
39 G.W. Murray Cotton Chopper. Patent # 520,888 June 5, 1894
40 G.W. Murray Planter. Patent # 520,887 June 5, 1894
41 G. F. Grant Golf Tee. Patent # 638,920 December 12, 1899
42 G.T. Sampson Clothes Drier 1892
43 G.W. Kelley Steam Table 1897
44 Garret A. Morgan Gas Mask (Saved Many Lives During WWI) 1914
45 George Alcorn Fabrication of spectrometer. Patent # 4,618,380 October 21, 1986
46 George Tolivar Ship's propeller
47 George Washington Carver Peanut Butter 1900
48 George Washington Carver 300 products from peanuts, 118 products from the sweet potato and 75 from the pecan. 1900-1943
49 Garret A. Morgan Automatic Traffic Signal 1923
50 Gertrude E. Downing and William Desjardin Corner Cleaner Attachment.
Patent # 3,715,772 February 13, 1973
51 Granville Woods Telephone (His Telephone Was Far Superior To Alexander Graham Bell's) Dec. 2,1884
52 Granville Woods Trolley Car 1888
53 Granville Woods Multiplex Telegraph System (Allowed Messages To Be Sent And Received From Moving Trains) 1887
54 Granville Woods Railway Air Brakes (The First Safe Method Of Stopping Trains) 1903
55 Granville Woods Steam Boiler/Radiator 1884
56 Granville Woods-- Third Rail (Subway)
57 H. Grenon Razor Stropping Device. Patent # 554,867 February 18, 1896
58 H.H. Reynolds Window Ventilator for Railroad Cars.
Patent No.275,271 April 3, 1883
59 H.A. Jackson Kitchen Table
60 Henry Blair Mechanical Seed Planter 1830
61 Henry Blair Mechanical Corn Harvester
62 Henry Single Patented an Improved Fish Hook. He sold it later for $625. 1854
63 Henry Sampson Cellular Phone July 6th, 1971
64 I.O. Carter Nursery Chair 1960
65 Issac R. Johnson Bicycle Frame
66 J. A. Joyce Ore Bucket. Patent # 603,143 April 26, 1898
67 J. Hawkins Patented the Gridiron March 3, 1845
68 J. Gregory Motor
69 J.A. Sweeting Cigarette Roller 1897
70 J.B. Winters Fire Escape Ladder
71 J. H. Hunter Portable Weighing Scales. Patent # 570,533 November 3, 1896
72 J.F. Pickering Air Ship 1892
73 J. H. Robinson Lifesaving guards for Street Cars. Patent# 623,929 April 25, 1899
74 J. Robinson Dinner Pail. Patent# 356,852 February 1, 1887
75 J. W. Reed Dough Kneader and Roller. Patents# 304,552 September 2, 1884
76 J. Ross Bailing Press. Patent # 632,539 Sept 05, 1899
77 J.H. White Convertible Sette (A Large Sofa) 1892
78 J.H. White Lemon Squeezer 1896
79 J.L. Love Pencil Sharpener. Patent # 594,114 23 November 1897
80 J.S. Smith Lawn Sprinkler. Patent # 581,785 May 4, 1897
81 James Forten Sailing Apparatus 1850
82 James S. Adams Airplane Propelling
83 Jan Matzelinger Automatic Shoe Making Machine 1883
84 Joan Clark Medicine Tray 1987
85 John A. Johnson Wrench
86 John Burr Lawn Mower
87 John Parker "Parker Pulverizer" Follower-Screw for Tobacco Presses. Patent# 304,552 September 2, 1884
88 John Standard Refrigerator. Patent# 304,552 Jul 14,1894
89 Joseph Gammel Supercharge System for Internal Combustion Engine
90 Joseph N. Jackson Programmable Remote Control
91 L.C. Bailey Folding Bed 1899
92 L. Bell Locomotive smoke stack. Patent# 115,153 May 23, 1871
93 L. F. Brown Bridle bit. Patent # 484,994 October 25, 1892
94 L.S. Burridge And N.R. Marsham Typewriter 1885
95 Lewis Howard Latimer Light Bulb Filament
96 Lewis Temple Toggle Harpoon (Revolutionized The Whaling Industry) 1848
97 Lloyd A. Hall Chemical compound to preserve meat
98 Lloyd P. Ray Dust Pan
99 Lydia Holmes Wood Toys. Patent # 2,529,692 November 14, 1950
100 Lydia O. Newman Hair brush
101 M.C. Harney Lantern/Lamp Aug.19, 1884
102 Madam. C. Walker Hair Care Products 1905
103 Majorie Joyner Permanent hair wave machine. Patent # 1693515 November 27, 1928
104 Madeline M. Turner The Fruit Press 1916
105 Marie V. Brittan Brown Security System. Patent # 3,482,037 December 2, 1969
106 Manley West Discovered compound in canibis to cure glaucoma. 1980-1987
107 Norbett Rillieux Sugar Refining System 1846
108 O.B. Clare Rail Tresle. Patent# 390,753 October 9, 1888
109 O. E. Brown Horse Shoe 8/23/1892
110 Onesimus Small Pox Inoculation (He Brought This Method From Africa Where Advance Medical Practices Were In Use Long Before Europeans Had Any Medical Knowledge) 1721
111 Otis F. Boykin Wire Type Precision Resistor.
Patent # U.S. 2,891,227 June 16, 1959
112 Paul E Williams Helicopter
113 Peter Walker Machine for Cleaning Seed Cotton
114 Phillip Downing Letter Drop Mailbox. Patent # 462,096 October 27, 1891
115 Philip Emeagwali Accurate Weather Forecasting 1990
116 Philip Emeagwali Hyperball Computer April 1996
117 Philip Emeagwali Improved Petroleum Recovery 1990
118 Philip Emeagwali World's Fastest Computer 1989
119 R.A. Butler Train alarm. Patent #157,370 June 15, 1897
120 R.P. Scott Corn Silker 1894
121 Richard Spikes Automatic Gear Shift
122 Robert Flemming Jr. Guitar March 3, 1886
123 S. H. Love Improvement to military guns. Patent # 1301143. 22 April 1919
124 S. H. Love Improve Vending Machine. Patent # 1936515 November 21, 1933
125 Sara E. Goode Cabinet Bed 1885
126 Rufus Stokes Patent #3,378,241 Exhaust Purifier April 16, 1968
127 Sarah Boone Ironing Board April 26, 1892
128 T. Elkins Toilet 1897
129 T. J. Byrd Rail car coupling . Patent# 157,370 December 1, 1874
130 Thomas Carrington Range Oven 1876   


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