Well this, my friend, is a post dedicated entirely to you. I've put together a wine region cheat sheet that will help you navigate a wine list by region alone, while having little knowledge about the actual wines represented on the menu. Following are several of the world's most commonly known wine producing regions. Each region produces a vast array of wines in drastically varying styles from modern to traditional, sweet to dry, still to sparkling and so forth, so generalizing what a typical Spanish wine might taste like, for instance, is a very tall and perhaps impossible order.
Nevertheless, each of these regions is known for having success with particular grape varieties or particular styles of wine, and these tidbits can act as general guidelines when you're attempting to narrow down your choices at a restaurant and land on a wine that you will enjoy.
For the most reliable results when making your wine selections, choose a wine made from a grape variety that the region is best known for. For example, if you're looking for a California red, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Zinfandel are all safe bets. If you're looking for a Chilean or a New Zealand white, stick with Sauvignon Blanc.
Italy and France
Italy and France are two of Europe's most historic wine regions and the wines made in these countries are classified as Old World. Wines made in Italy and France will typically show lower alcohol, less use of new oak (if any oak is used at all), and higher acidity (the element in wine that causes it to taste tart) than New World wines. Generally speaking, French and Italian wines are less ripe (AKA sweet) than their New World counterparts and are more earthy or savory in style. Given the endless number of producers, appellations, and grape varieties encompassed by these two countries, there are definitely exceptions to these rules. There is a substantial number of modern producers in each of these countries that have moved away from traditional winemaking methods in favor of something more akin to the viticultural practices of the New World. Nevertheless, these guidelines will definitely help you filter through a long wine list to find the right category of wine for you.
Since Italy and France are home to a seemingly limitless number of indigenous grapes, ordering by grape variety alone, the way you would with New World wines, might be challenging. Once you've narrowed down to a few appealing options, make sure to ask your server or the sommelier for some further details on the wines.
Like Italy and France, Spain is home to a vast array of lesser-known native grapes, so when choosing a Spanish wine, instead of relying on the grape variety, ask your server or the sommelier for guidance.